History

40,000 BC Paleolithic – traces of the first settlements on Serbian soil

6500-5500 BC Mesolithic – the Lepenski Vir culture in the Đerdap Gorge.

4500-3200 BC Early Neolithic – the Vinča culture, near Belgrade.

2000-1000 BC Bronze Age – the Vatin culture, Dubovac.

1000-100 BC Iron Age – the first historically recognised tribes: the Moesi, Triballi and the Dardani.

269 AD Emperor Claudius II defeats the Goths near Niš

3rd to 4th centuries Several Roman emperors are born on the soil of modern Serbia (Aurelian, Probus, Galerius and Constantine the Great).

4th century Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) is one of the capitals of the Roman Empire.

395 After the Roman Empire splits, Serbia becomes part of the eastern portion.

527-565 Byzantine emperor Justinian builds and reconstructs cities, raises churches, and builds a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima.

6th century Slavic tribes from the Danube Basin settle in the Balkans.

c. 630 The Slavs capture Singidunum (Belgrade).

7th century The Serbs begin to accept Christianity.

c. 780 Prince Višeslav, first Serbian ruler known to historians.

830-851 Prince Vlastimir, founder of the Vlastimirović dynasty, the oldest Serbian dynasty.

9th century Christian missionaries Cyril and Methodius create the first Slavic script – Glagolitic – and liturgical texts are translated into the Old Church Slavonic language.

878 First mention of the Slavic name for Belgrade.

10th century The Cyrillic script is developed.

1054 After the schism between the Eastern and Western churches, Serbia becomes a part of the Eastern church.

1096-1189 Crusaders pass through Serbia.

1166-1196 Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, wages war against the Byzantine Empire and rules a territory extending from the Adriatic coast to the Morava and Šar Mountains.

1175-1236 Saint Sava (Prince Rastko Nemanjić), the first Serbian archbishop.

1180 The Miroslav Gospel, the most important and beautiful preserved Serbian manuscript, is produced.

1196-1228 Stefan Prvovenčani (‘the First-Crowned’) rules Serbia, conquers Niš, Vranje and Prizren.

1217 Serbia becomes a kingdom, Stefan Prvovenčani is given the king’s crown by the pope.

1219 The Serbian autocephalous Archbishopric of Žiča is created.

1243-1276 King Stefan Uroš I marries Helen of Anjou, Serbia strengthens economically, arrival of Saxon miners.

1276-1282 King Stefan Dragutin.

1282-1321 King Stefan Uroš II Milutin expands the country southward.

1284 Belgrade comes under Serbian rule for the first time.

1285 The Mongols raid Serbia.

1321-1330 King Stefan Uroš III Dečanski.

1331-1355 King Dušan defeats the Bulgarians near Velbužd, conquers northern Greece and enacts Dušan’s Code.

1346 Dušan crowned in Skopje as King of the Serbs and Greeks. The Serbian Church is accorded the status of a Patriarchate.

1355-1371 King Uroš Nejaki (’the Weak’) does not manage to establish control over the fragmented Serbian nobility, a forewarning of the fall of the Serbian Empire.

1371 Battle of Maritsa, after which the Turkish conquest of Serbia begins.

1377 Bosnian Ban Tvrtko I, a descendant of the Nemanjić dynasty, is crowned in Mileševa as King of Serbs and Bosnia.

1389 The Battle of Kosovo, in which both opposing rulers die (Prince Lazar and Sultan Murad I), together with the cream of the Serbian nobility, and Serbia is reduced to a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.

1389-1427 Stefan Lazarević, son of Prince Lazar, becomes despot from 1402.

1402-1459 The Serbian Despotate, a vassal state both in relation to Hungary and Turkey. Development of mining and trade, flourishing of cities.

1403 Under Despot Stefan Lazarević Belgrade becomes the capital of mediaeval Serbia.

1427-1456 Despot Đurađ Branković, nephew of Despot Stefan Lazarević.

1427 The Hungarians conquer Belgrade.

1439-1455 The Turks capture a large part of Serbia and Novo Brdo.

1459 The Turks then take Smederevo too and Serbia loses its independence.

1521 Belgrade, which had been held by the Hungarians, falls into Turkish hands.

1557 Makarije, the brother of Ottoman Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, becomes the Serbian patriarch.

1683-1699 War of the Holy League between Austria and Turkey.

1688 The Austrian army conquers Belgrade.

1690 After defeating the Austrians near Kačanik, Patriarch Arsenije III leads a migration of Serbs towards the north, to Vojvodina. Belgrade again falls under Turkish rule

1717 Habsburg military commander Eugène of Savoy defeats the Turks in a major battle in Belgrade and conquers Serbia down to the Zapadna Morava river.

1739 The Peace of Belgrade signed, Danube and Sava rivers again form a border between Austria and Turkey.

1751-1753 Serbs migrate to Russia in great numbers while mass colonisation from various parts of the Habsburg Monarchy gives rise to the diverse ethnic makeup of Vojvodina.

1788-1791 Austro-Turkish War Kočina Krajina Serb rebellion.

15th February 1804 After a gathering of the people in Orašac, the First Serbian Uprising against Turkish rule begins, its chosen leader Đorđe Petrović, known as Karađorđe.

1806 Karađorđe liberates Belgrade which once again becomes the capital city of Serbia.

1813 The First Serbian Uprising fails.

1814 Hadži-Prodan’s Revolt.

1815 Second Serbian Uprising led by Miloš Obrenović.

1818 First edition of Vuk Karadžic’s Serbian dictionary is published, setting in motion the introduction of today’s Serbian Cyrillic script.

1830-1833 Serbia achieves autonomy through a hatiserif (Sultan’s edict) and a berat (Sultan’s decree) confirms Prince Miloš Obrenović as the hereditary ruler of Serbia.

1835 The Constitution of the Principality of Serbia, known as the Sretenj Constitution, is passed but suspended under pressure from Austria, Russia and Turkey for being too liberal.

1839-1842 First government of Prince Mihailo Obrenović.

1841 Belgrade becomes the capital of the Principality of Serbia, and the Serbian Learned Society (later becoming the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts) is founded.

1842-1858 Aleksandar Karađorđević, prince of Serbia.

1848 Hungarian Revolution and the Serbian Vojvodina proclaimed.

1860-1868 Second government of Prince Mihailo Obrenović.

1864 Matica Srpska, founded in 1826 in Pest, moves to Novi Sad.

1867 Turkish troops pull out of the last six fortified cities in Serbia.

1868-1889 Milan Obrenović, king from 1882.

1876-1878 Serbo-Turkish War during which southeastern Serbia, Niš and Vranje are liberated. Serbo-Bulgarian War in Slivnitsa.

1878 The independence of Serbia recognised at the Congress of Berlin.

1882 Principality of Serbia proclaimed a kingdom

1888 Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia introduces parliamentarism.

1889-1903 King Aleksandar Obrenović.

1893 Electric lighting is introduced to Belgrade, and electric trams begin the following year.

1903 May coup d’etat, following the murder of King Aleksandar and Queen Draga, the Karađorđević dynasty again accedes to the throne.

1903-1921 King Petar I Karađorđević ruler of Serbia.

1912 First Balkan War, pitting Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece against Turkey, remaining Serbian territories under Turkish rule are liberated.

1913 Second Balkan War in which Serbia defeats Bulgaria.

1914 Austro-Hungarian attack on Serbia marks the beginning of the First World War. The Austrians bomb and conquer Belgrade, but the Serbs liberate the city in the same year. The battles of Cer and Kolubar a are the first Allied victories in the war.

1915 Withdrawal of the Serbian army, government and people via Albania towards Greece, during which many die of hunger, cold and illness.

1918 The Serbian army breaks through the Macedonian (Salonika) Front, Bulgaria and Austro-Hungary capitulate and Germany signs the Armistice.

1918-1929 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

1921-1934 King Aleksandar is assassinated in Marseilles in 1934 during a visit to France.

1924 Aircraft production begins in Serbia.

1929 Radio Belgrade begins broadcasting.

1929-1941 Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

6th April 1941 Germany bombs Belgrade and other Serbian towns, with no prior declaration of war.

1941-1945 Germany and neighbouring countries occupy Yugoslavia during the Second World War.

20th October 1944 Belgrade is liberated by the People’s Liberation Army of Yugoslavia, with the help of the Russian Red Army.

1945 The monarchy is abolished and the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia is proclaimed under the leadership of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia.

1945-1980 Josip Broz Tito, as Yugoslavian President, leader of the Communist Party and supreme commander of the Yugoslavian People’s Army, through skilful diplomacy during a time when the world is divided between the Warsaw Pact and NATO, manages to secure Yugoslavia a favourable position in international relations.

1948 After a Cominform resolution, there is a disagreement between Tito and Stalin.

1950 Workers’ self-management socialist practice officially begins, with properties seized from their pre-war owners.

1956 Yugoslavia, Egypt and India found the Non-Aligned Movement.

1961 The first Non-Aligned Movement conference is held in Belgrade.

1963 Under a new constitution the name of the country is changed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

1961 Ivo Andrić receives a Nobel Prize for Literature.

1968 Student demonstrations in Belgrade.

1974 The new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Constitution is adopted.

1980 Josip Broz dies, an eight-member Presidency begins to govern the country.

1991-1995 Civil war and the breakup of Yugoslavia along the borders of the former republics.

1992 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is declared. The United Nations imposes economic sanctions on the state.

1999 NATO air forces, supporting Albanian secessionists in Kosovo and Metohija, bomb the FR Yugoslavia over a period of three months. A great number of civilians also killed as a result of the bombing of targets in Serbian cities. Kosovo and Metohija becomes a UN protectorate as part of the Kumanovo Agreement. Around 300,000 Serbs flee Kosovo and Metohija.

5th October 2000 After elections and civil protests, Slobodan Milošević steps down from power.

2001 Serbia gets its first democratic government

2003 FR Yugoslavia becomes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

12 March 2003 Prime Minister of Serbia Dr Zoran Đinđic is assassinated

2006 Serbia again becomes an independent country. New Constitution of the Republic of Serbia adopted

2009 Serbia formally submits its application for European Union membership.